Public education in Knox began when the town was created in 1795, thanks to the new state legislator that appropriated $20,000 for a common school fund, of which Albany Counties share was $3,975. By 1812 there were 21 school districts in the Town of Berne (which included Knox), each with its own school. Knox become a separate town until 1822. There are many reasons the schools were inexpensive to run:
- schools were cheaply constructed
- residents donated the wood to heat the stoves
- teachers were boarded in the homes of local families
- older students acted as janitors
- texts consisted of weekly newspapers, catechism, the New Testament, and loaned books.
By the middle of the 19th Century Knox was included in the 2nd District of Albany. New one-room schools were built throughout the town at locations to minimize the miles the students had to walk. The buildings were an improvement over the earlier ones, being built with clapboard siding and widows on two sides to improve ventilation and light. Usually the boys were seated on one side and the girls on the other. In 1930 the Central School District was created and a new building built in 1932 to house the students from 15 local districts. It was not until 1956 all of the present area was included in the centralized district.
- Knox Sesquicentennial: Schoolmasters, Scholars, and Schools
- Knox Sesquicentennial: Knoxville Academy
- Berne-Knox-Westerlo Central School located in the hamlet of Berne, Town of Berne, has served the Town of Knox since 1932.
One-Room Schools - All of the schools before 1932 were one-room schools.
- Knox School District No. 1 Was on what is now Rock Road near Michienzi Road.
- Knox School District No. 2 Is on the corner of (what is now) Witter Road and Township Road (Route 146)
- Knox School District No. 3 Was located on what is now the intersection of Pleasant Valley and Tabor Road
- Knox School District No. 4 Was located on Route 156 on what was the property of Marshall Clickman
- Knox School District No. 5 Located on Ketcham lane and The boys club lane in the Thompsons lake area
- Knox School District No. 6 The Center of the Village of Knox (property of the Knox Fire Dept.)
- Knox School District No. 7 Located on Knox Gallupville Road at the corner of Gage Road.
- Knox School District No. 8 Located on what is now the intersection of Middle and Beebe Road
- Knox School District No. 9 Combined with 2 actually building was in the town of Wright
- Knox School District No. 10 Is located on Bozenkill Road at the corner of Colliton Road
- Knox School District No. 11 Knox Cave (Knox Delanson Rd.) Near the intersection of West Wind Road
- Knox School District No. 12 (Bozenkill School)Was located on Quay Road near the intersection of Bell Road, until it was moved to the Altamont Fair Grounds.
- Knox School District No. 13 Was located on the "Then Zimmer Farm" and relocated to the "Then Bradt Farm"
- Knox School District No. 14 Was taken into the Town of Wright School system
- Knox School District No. 15 West Berne School